We will share data and its coding upon request. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. This article measures this group's voting habits in the elections. Evidence indicates a strong rejection of Obama among counties with high proportions of unhyphenated Americans in both the primary and general elections. While spatially concentrated in and near Appalachia, unhyphenated Americans' politics are distinctive irrespective of socioeconomic status, religion, and geography, being one of the few groups in which Barack Obama lost votes compared to previous Democratic nominees.
Variation in the share of unhyphenated Americans explains more of the difference between and past elections than variation in the share of African Americans per county. Volume 92 , Issue 3. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Social Science Quarterly Volume 92, Issue 3. Brian K. Jeremy M. Teigen Ramapo College Search for more papers by this author. Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Germany Calling. A weekly publication announcing forthcoming broadcasts from Germanv.
The Second Hunger Blockade. The War in Maps. A Nation Builds. Educational Records. Musical Records. Reference Books on Germany. German Forests, Treasures of a Nation. Although this agency was ostensibly a business enterprise set up for the purpose of promot- ing rail travel in Germany, it was in fact primarily a Nazi propa- ganda outlet.
It is a characteristic of the totalitarian society that all of its business institutions must be coordinated with the political state. There is no such thing as a separation of business and the state under the Nazis. In November , the committee published a report which exposed the subversive character of this Nazi agency. On June 16, , Mr. The full text of the order expelling the German Railroads Infor- mation Office from the United States is reproduced in the chapter of this volume dealing with German diplomatic and consular agents. Branch offices were maintained in Chicago and San Francisco.
The director of the office was one Ernst Sehmitz. Zapp, Aew York, N. Zapp: On Wednesday December lith at 7 P. I should lie happy if you could join and 1 should be grateful if you could give me your answer by Monday afternoon, by telephoning by my office, using I hi' number Wickersham With kind regards. Ileil Hitler!
Signed Schmitz. Accepted by telephone. The following are some of the samples of this propaganda: Berlin and Its Environ But here one is standing on historic ground, for the shoii distance across to the Wilhelmstrasse, the way "from the Kaiserhof to the Reich Chancery" which Dr. Josef Goebbels has described so vividly and thrillingly in his book was hard and difficult and involved great toil and sacrifice.
Adolf Hitler used to stay here at the Kaiserhof when his mission called him to Berlin, and it was from the Kaiserhof that he moved over to the Wilhelmstrasse as victor on the 30th January. The surrounding walls could tell of the jubilation of the hundreds of thousands who filled the square and the adjoining streets on that evening; the windows reflected the glare of countless torches carried by the endless processions which came from Unter den Linden to greet Adolf Hitler, the German people's Chancellor; and until late at night the walls reechoed the shouts of the crowd while the songs of the Movement rose to the skies like jubilant prayers of thanks- giving and the National Anthem was sung again and again.
Four years later the torches flamed again in an endless procession, the jubilation of a vast crowd was boundless and the shouts of "Heil" echoed again until the Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor appeared on the simple balcony on that day, the fourth anniversary of the national resurgence, to thank the multitude for their loyalty which streamed towards him like one vast wave of gratitude.
The shouts reechoed and songs were sung with enthusiasm until late on that memorable night. At all hours people stand on. At all hours of the day people stand here and uaze up longingly at the tall windows behind which the Fuhrer lives and works, and the question which is constantly on many lips is how he lives and what things are like inside.
But perhaps one of us might see it all with enlightened eyes, for the Fuhrer's picture lives in all hearts; yet perhaps the description should be left to a perfectly impartial observer. Fdid not have to wait long. Secretary Funk fetched me from the anteroom, which is furnished with modern comfortable armchairs. The main impression of the reception by Hitler is one of great simplicity. The Fuhrer advanced to meet me with outstretched hand. I was astonished and surprised by the blueness of his eyes which look a?
At that moment I realized the magical influence by this leader of men and his power over the masses. In the Temple of Honour on the Konigsplatz, the first men to give their lives for the National Socialist Movement sleep their long last sleep. The Fuhrer's House in the Konigsplatz. The House of German Art. Two organizations which owe their existence to the Fuhrer; namely, the "Strength through Joy" organization and the "National Socialist Kultur Gemeinde.
Everywhere the innate love of music is fostered and developed and the lads in the Labour Service Camps and the stal- wart Storm Troopers sing at their work or on the march and have their own very fine bands. Sport in Germany Foreword: And so sport is not only there to make the individual strong, skillful and daring, but it must also harden him and teach him to suffer injustice.
Editor's note. It should read "to endure hardship. The enthusiasm and the devotion to the cause of our fatherland and the Olympic ideas led to the German sports movement.
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In hardly any other form of sport in Germany has there been such a boom, owing to National Socialism, as in motoring. Its revival and increase, which are due solely to the Fuhrer's initiative, are unique. Gliding not only serves the purposes of sport and aeronautical research, but is also a school for the character in which the rising generation are trained ideo- logically in the National-Socialist spirit to be simple and unassuming.
Gives regional leaders and instructors of the German League for Physical Exercises. In a number of instances these are listed as Storm Troop leaders.
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Germany, Land of the Healing Spas In harmony with the social ideas of the German people which have been greatly strengthened by the national movement of late. Through the powerful initiative of the Fuhrer and Reich [Chancellor, Adolf Hitler, Munich is now experiencing another period of town planning and cultural activity. Rosenheim, 1, feet, 22, inhabitants, an old town on the Inn. Birth- place of Field Marshal Hermann Goring.
Graf-Spee Strasse 6, tel. Hoist Wessel, the author and composer of the National Socialist song, "Die Fahne hoch," Storm Troop leader and national hero, died on the 23rd of February The room in which he died in the Horst Wessel Hospital on the Friedrichshain has been converted into a memorial room. In the Fehrbelliner Platz a monument lias been erected in commemoration of those who gave their lives for the National-Socialist Movement in Berlin.
Germany's Universities and Colleges The young National-Socialist Germany extends a cordial welcome to all foreign students. All German universities and colleges are now imbued with an energetic, opt imist ic, modern spirit. The recovery of the old Eastern March probably meaning marsh is Adolf Hitler's personal achievement, and the greal historical event is doubly impres- sive because fate allowed him to achieve the union of his own native country with Germany. It is also due to his political energy and resolute love of peace that the last of the ureal German minorities which were kept apart and separated from the Reich by the dictate of Versailles, was' enabled to find its way back to the German State.
By welding together the National and Socialist ideas Adolf Hitler created the National Socialist Movement under which the leadership of the Fuehrer won and conquered the whole nation. The first step toward National Socialist reorganization was the restoration of internal peace by carrying out a gigantic program of economic reconstruction in all directions. The National Socialist German Workers Party, the only political party in Germany, is the upholder of the ideas and of the ideology which have brought about the national renewal of Germany.
It supplies in the first place the political leaders, looks after the political training of the nation and is instrumental in mastering the great tasks imposed on the community in these times. At the Party Congresses in Nuremberg, the National Socialist German Workers Party and its powerful formations review ever vear their vows to the Fuehrer and the nation. The Berlin of the National Socialist era will not be conspicuous for skyscrapers, but it is planned to offer the best possible faculties for the traffic of the future and to form a new architecturally harmonious unity as conceived by the Fuehrer himself.
Southern Bavaria High above Berchtesgaden, crowning the Obersalzberg, stands the country home of the Fuehrer and Chancellor of the Reich, giving to this lovely spot a special consecreation in the New r Reich. Never forget that the most sacred of rights in this world is that to the soil which you till yourself, and that the most sacred sacrifice is the blood shed for this soil.
This mailing list was used for the purpose of promulgating the organization's Nazi propaganda. The committee also discovered that the American FelloAvship Forum had assisted in the compilation of this mailing list of the German Railroads Information Office. These films were shipped by express prepaid with no charges for rental or handling. One of these agencies was the Transocean News Service. After its "coordination" into the Nazi scheme of tilings, the Trans- ocean News Service was transformed into an agency for the dissemina- tion of Nazi propaganda and was utilized by the Hitler regime as an organization which could, with a minimum of suspicion, engage in espionage activities.
During the ensuing 2 months these records were translated and studied. In November the committee issued a special report on the Trans- ocean News Service. The report revealed that the Transocean News Service was noth- ing more nor less than a propaganda arm of the Nazi regime. Fol- lowing this disclosure by the committee, the Assistant Secretary of State, acting under the direction of the President of the United States, ordered the Transocean News Service to leave the country. As a result, the Department indicted Manfred Zapp and Guenther Tonn Zapp's assistant for failing to register properly with the State Department as agents of a foreign principal as is required by the act of June 8, They were sub- sequently tried and convicted, but, instead of serving their sentences they were returned to Germany in exchange for two American news- papermen who had been arrested there.
It carried on its functions as a legitimate and reputable news agency until the advent of Hitler in Germany at which time it was taken over by the Nazis and converted into what amounted to a propaganda and espionage agency for Germany. It operated throughout the world and it first became active in the United States in October , when Manfred Zapp was sent to this country to establish it here and to use it as a front for the dissemination of Nazi propaganda to the American people and to gather vital information for the Nazi govern- ment. Zapp arrived in the United States on August 29, He entered on German passport No.
He had the status of a treaty merchant. Zapp was born in Dusseldorf, Germany, about and had previously been to America in and as a lecturer in this country and Canada. While here he spent much time on the west coast, especially around Seattle. Prior to Zapp's coming to the United States, he had been attached to Transocean News Service in Berlin and before that he was the agency's representative in South Africa.
It was found by the com- mittee that he had also traveled considerably throughout Europe where he had made important contacts. So far as the committee was able to determine, Transocean did not employ any reporters except a newspaper man in Washington by the name of Tom Davis, who was retained by Zapp to cover the White House and State Department, as well as to attend as many of the diplomatic functions as possible. Hawk, William Russell, William R. Kampmann, Edwin A. This clearly shows the aniounl of subsidy which was being furnished Zapp by the Nazi government to carry on his propaganda work.
The follow- ing is a list of the diplomatic and consular officials of the German Government who actively assisted Zapp and Transocean in this country: Friedhelm Draeger, vice consul, consulate general, New York. Hans Joachim Geier, consular secretary in consulate general, New York. Ernst Hepp, assistant in the Embassy. Karl Kapp, consul at Cleveland. Kellermeier, clerk, consulate geneial, New York. George Krause-Wichman, vice consul, consulate general, Chicago.
Siegmar Lurtz, consul, consulate general, New York. Maisch, an assistant in consulate general, New Yoik. Schlich, a secretary in consulate general, New York. Herbert Scholz, consul general, Boston.
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Freiherr von Spiegel, consul general, New Orleans. Spiegelman, attached to German consulate, Mobile. Heribert von Strempel, first secretary, Embassy. Hans Thomsen, counselor of Embassy. As a matter of fact the Embassy and consular officials were the principal media for the dissemination of the Transocean News releases.
The committee has evidence that certain consular officials furnished the Transocean News releases free of charge to certain German-language newspapers which were published in this country. The activities of Zapp were not confined entirely to the United States. It was also his job to set up Transocean in South and Central America.
It has been established by the committee that Transocean News Service was furnished to a number of small newspapers in certain South American countries and that the editors of these newspapers were directly subsidized by Transocean to publish their propaganda. For a complete and detailed report on. Volksbund Fuer Das Deutschtum Im Ausland was founded in Germany around for the purpose of maintaining and promoting German institutions and German culture among Germans living anywhere in the world. When Adolf Hitler came into power on January 30, , the V.
Since that time it has been an instrument of the Nazi Party for the propagation of Nazi ideas and propaganda among the people of German extraction living throughout the world. From this committee's investigation it has been determined that the V. The headquarters of the V.
Ernst Wilhelm Bohle was appointed by Hitler to head this organization. In the Berlin office, there are sections for each country throughout the world where Germans reside in any number. This report deals only with the American section. The present head of the "Comradeship U. Kappe, now an officer in the German Army, is the subject of a Nation- wide spy hunt now being conducted by the Federal authorities. According to a recent announcement by the F. Other individuals who are located in the American section of V.
Vennekohl, former bund leader in Fori land, Oreg. Jiitz Gissibl, founder of the Teulonia sceiety which was the forerunner of the German- American Bund. This committee obtained a confidential communication written in German which was sent out to all members of the "Comradeship, U.
This confidential communication announced the appointment of Walter Kappe to the leadership of the "Comradeship, U. Many left their former circles of activity to become soldiers or have been transferred in the meantime to one of he new territories. A meeting in Stuttgart provided the incentive to resume contact by the Central Office with all comrades.
I beg each individual to resume active participation in the work of his respective group for I am convinced that our work in the future will be of significance. In old loyalty Heil Hitler! I have accepfed the leadership of the Comradeship U. This circular letter is to assisi in renewing contaci with all comrades, men and women, from Stuttgart. I depend upon the coopera- tion of everyone.
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Heil Hitler! Walter Kappe. Attached to this announcement was a "strictly confidential" letter from Kappe to all comrades explaining the reasons for the establishment of the "Comradeship, U. Certain sections of this document divulge the espionage activities of the organization: Contact with the United States: It is of the greatest interest that the comrades maintain relations by letter with their acquaintances in the United States or renew these relations while observing the prescribed caution. In this respect it should be particularly noted that the recipient should not be endangered by careless remarks on our part.
Any criticism or interference in internal American affairs should be avoided. Letters may best be sent "Via Siberia" with exact observance of postal regula- tions. Important to us are reports concerning public opinion in the United States, such as the nature of the attitude of Germans, whose clubs have disbanded, how the average American considers the situation, how anti-Jewish sentiment is developing, elc. But in every case it must be avoided to ask these questions directly of the recipient of the letters. The following sections of Kappe's report are significant in that the German Government therein acknowledges the effectiveness of this committee's exposures against both its official and unofficial agents and organizations who have been operating in this country.
It will also be noted in Kappe's report below that the German-American Bund is referred to as: the most indoctrinated combat group in American Germanism — and that: membership in the German- American Bund has dropped and some local groups which were like fortified outposts in enemy country have had to be given up, but there are today still about 40 local groups ranged around the three centers — New York, Chicago, and San Francisco.
The following are excerpts from Kappe's report: Accordingly, anti-German propaganda had it comparatively easy since the great mass of the thousands and thousands of. That this was a false conclusion must have been apparent in the meantime for, regardless of whether it was a matter of proclamations of the large central organizations, of German evenings of German nationals or of the programs organized by German- American associations, they were disturbed, forced out of their intended frame- work or suppressed entirely.
Xo difference was made between defaming the combat program of the American-German Volksbund and opposing a resolution of the Steuben Society of America directed against British propaganda in the United States. Naturally, the American-German Volksbund which is by far that most active and most indoctrinated combat group in American-Germanism always stands in the forefront of the anti-German agitation. Although it operates on a fully legal basis and is a purely American affair in which only naturalized or native-born Americans can be accepted as members, it is placed under the law of exceptions Ausnahmegesetz together with the Communists since the German-Russian pact the American press now writes only about the "Communazis" and its lead- ers are constantly called before the Congressional Committee for the Investigation of "Un-American Activities.
Bolice raids on the summer camps of the Bund, the so-called "camps," are common, although they are always without result and in no case have the alleged stocks of weapons or other "war material" imported from Germany for the purpose of a revolution by force been found. It is true that since the beginning of the war the Bund has suffered losses in its unequal fight against a superior power, which controls the public opinion of the country and has at its disposal unlimited funds. Membership has dropped and some local groups which were like fortified outposts in enemy country have had to be given up, but there are today still about 40 local groups ranged around the three centers at Xew York, Chicago, and San Francisco, and the new leader of the Bund, the American-born Wilhelm Kunze, could state with justified pride at the Chicago National Congress in the late summer of "We still exist in the midst of the poisonous war propaganda!
We exist in a situation in which during the last war all German organizations broke up. That is proof enough that we have the prerequisites in our movement to hold out! Constantly under surveillance by secret agents, plain-clothes men and agents provocateurs, their activity is continually the subject of sensational press articles and so-called "investigations.
It would be a mistake, however, to conclude from what has been said in this report that American Germanism has in this fateful hour entirely failed. How- ever, if lacks the organizational structure, it lacks, in many cases, the national strength and discipline, but in their hearts the Germans of America experience very deeply the powerful revolution in Europe. They follow breathlessly on their short-wave receivers every phase of the German struggle and they always feel themselves strengthened in their pride in their Germanism through the heroism of the German soldiers.
The AM. Tin- V.
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In the United States, the WD. In this they were rather successful. The com- mittee's investigation revealed that the V. He was active in the distribution of V. It was also Orgell's "mission" to supply pro- Nazi textbooks to German language schools here. To substantiate this, the committee reproduces a letter which may be found on page , volume 2, executive hearings, from Orgell to the Reyerend J. Kasiske, which reads as follows: Dear Pastor: Mr.
Hans Ackermann informed me that you wish now school books for your German language school. I have the American franchise of the V. One of our tasks is the promotion of the German language instruction. If you will be so kind and give me the number of children in your individual classes, then will I gladly send a request to Berlin to send to you without cost picture reading books. We have as picture books "Xeue Fiebel," by Richard Lange; "Leselust," in three different editions with the new German vertical writing, called Suetterlin writing, or with the former usual oblique writing, called the normal writing, or with latin script, called Steinshrift.
As readers we recommend Hirt's German reader for the second year. If you inform me how many you need of each kind, then will I forward the order at once.
I would be grateful to you if you could tell me something about German nationalism in your region. With German greeting, C. Hans Ackermann, referred to in this letter, has been dealt with in a separate chapter contained in this volume. Orgell also conducted various money raising campaigns for V.
These candles w T ere to be burned on Christmas Eve as a symbol of close relationship with "racial comradeship all over the world. The following publications of V. The material contained in these publications was anti-Semitic and pro- Nazi. Orgell was also very active in soliciting Germans to become dues-paying members of the V. This money was forwarded to Berlin. For more detailed information see the index for various references in the committee's hearings.
Its leader, Friedrich Auhagen, is now in prison as the result of a conviction obtained exclusively on the basis of evidence supplied to the Department of Justice by this committee. In addition to obtaining the organization's records, the committee took formal statements from and cross-examined the principal figures in the forum. On September 10, , the committee made a formal examination of Friedrich Auhagen, who held the position of director of the American Fellowship Forum. On August 28, , the committee subpenaed and formally examined George F. Bauer, who was chairman of the executive com- mittee of the forum.
Also on August 28, , the committee subpenaed and formally examined Ina A. Gotthelf, who was secretary of the forum. Also on August 28, , the committee subpenaed and formally examined Richard Koch, who was a member of the forum's executive committee and one of the organization's founders. On September 11, , the committee subpenaed and formally examined Ferdinand A. Kertess, who was one of the founders of the forum. On December , , Kertess appeared as a witness before a full meeting of the committee. The outer shell to serve as a protection in the public eye. The foregoing quotation is a striking description of the basic technique of a front organization.
An inner cabinet for real control — an outer shell for the deception of the public. The quotation is taken from a letter written by Heinrich AY7G. Freiherr von Bothmer to the chairman of the board of the American Fellowship Forum. Heinrich W. Freiherr son Bothmer, the author of the letter, was an employee of the Transocean Nrws Service. You took over the heavy task of bringing our Transocean News Service to wider circles and have impressively fulfilled this task to the extent in which you have reached everybody who fell within your field of duty.
I extend my best thanks for your successful efforts. With wannest greetings. It was this same Von Bothmer, employee of Manfred Zapp's Transocean News Service, who described the set-up of the American Fellowship Forum as having on the one hand an inner cabinet of known German leanings and affiliations and on the other hand an outer shell to serve' as a protection in the public eye. The Trans- ocean News Service and Manfred Zapp were subsequently convicted under the foreign agents registration law and Zapp was deported to Germany. Auhagen was born in Berlin, Germany, on December 24, His father was an official in the German Foreign Office.
The elder Auhagen was stationed for a period in Jerusalem, and it was there that his son Friedrich received his early education. After graduation from high school in Germany in , Auhagen served in the German Army for about 2 years, one of which was spent at the front in France.
After the World War, he completed studies in economics and mining engineering in German universities. Auhagen arrived in the United States on July 16, , on the S. He had hired on the S. Eisenach as a coal passer, and when he reached port in the United States he jumped ship. Later he was admitted to the country under the German quota.
Later he was employed in the foreign department of the Equitable Trust Co. In , Auhagen left the academic field and became a writer and lecturer. Auhagen made trips to Germany in , , , , , , , and Auhagen admitted to the committee that he was closely associated with Dr. Auhagen tried to explain his close association with Draeger on the ground that they had gone to school together in Germany and had served together in the German Army in the W r orld War, but Auhagen's activities as a Nazi propagandist indicate quite clearly that his frequent contacts with Draeger had political significance as well.
This was true of the American Fellow- ship Forum. We have already shown that Heinrich W. Freiherr von Bo turner who was an adviser on the set-up of the American Fellow- ship Forum was also an employee of the Nazi Tran,socean News Service George Sylvester Viereck, who was contributing editor of the American Fellowship Forum's Today's Challenge was also under contract as a propagandist for the German Library of Information.
Ferdinand A. Edmund F. Peter J. Bertling to Manfred Zapp, of the Tran. Bertling was director of the Amerika-Institut in Berlin. The latter was, of course, an official Nazi agency. It makes no differ- ence whether such Americans have actually or only apparently had a good word to say of the Nazi regime. Today's Challenge, the official organ of the American Fellowship Forum, regularly employed this technique of using the words of prominent Americans who either did speak or seemed to speak favor- ably of Hitler's Germany.
Thus, in the first issue of Today's Chal- lenge, clever use was made of an article which a man now prominent in public life wrote for one of our leading magazines. For what blank undoubtedly means by his advice to 'stop thinking about the evils and ugliness of Hitler's Germany' is to stop concentrating on those aspects of the new order in Germany, that tend to arouse enmity, and that are keeping emotions at such a pitch as to make clear and purposeful thinking impossible.
Neither of the men whose words were used by Today's Challenge and neither of the auspices under which they wrote and spoke can fairly be charged with being pro-Nazi, but the propaganda value of their words when used by a pro-Axis organization clearly points up the necessity for exercising extreme caution in all public utterances. During recent years, millions of Americans in their sincere love of peace have given expression to ideas which, when removed from their context, seemed to say that Hitler's Germany should be left free to pursue its course of tyrannical domination over the whole world.
Their words, often removed from their context and still more often removed from their authors' views as a whole, were seized upon by the Nazi propagandists and circulated far and wise for the sole purpose of immobilizing the American determination to defend ourselves against the menace of the Axis Powers.
It was a subtle technique in propaganda, and among the Nazi fronts which used it most shrewdly was the American Fellowship Forum. After this hope had grown dim, there arose the thought of a preventive war on the part of France to put down the rising Third'Reich. These hopes were succeeded by the doctrine of Collective Security preached by Anthony Eden and his school of thought as a certain means for stopping Hitler.
With the passing of Eden from the political stage this hope dwindled in its turn. The basic reason for this endless succession of disappointments is, of course, the fact that the political sagacity, the logic, and courage of Hitler have been greatly underestimated. But such an admission is scarcely to be expected from those who have constantly portrayed him as a maniac, paranoiac, madman, empty phrased demagogue, blood-thirsty tyrant, or as a neurotic dreamer, devoid of all reason and logic.
By Charles Micaud in the June-July issue of Today's Challenge: It seems, therefore, that Hitler is in a splendid position to realize Napoleon's dream of dominating Europe by integrating big and small i ations into his new Aryan Empire. In this new confederation of European Fascist countries, Mussolini cannot hope to be more than a brilliant second to the German Fuehrer, and he may yet regret the golden days of the Stresa Front. Their locations and leaders were as follows: Newark, N. Bareiss, Richard Koch, B. Meissner, Paul Inist.
Springfield, Mass. Cleveland, Ohio. Chicago, III. Heineker, Bertie Clement. The organization, with headquarters in Nazi Germany, flooded this country with Axis propaganda, much of which was distributed through Axis front groups here. Forbes, who dealt at length with the propaganda activities of the Fichte-Bund in the United States. Testimony of other witnesses before the committee disclosed the widespread circulation of Fichte- Bund material.
Officials of the organization include Oscar C. Pfaus and Theodor Kessemeier, both of whom have been active in the United States. Pfaus was at one time Chicago leader of the Friends of New Germany, predecessor to the German-American Bund, and was editor of a German newspaper in Chicago, which was the fore- runner of the official German-American Bund organ. He served in the United States Army and through his service gained American citizenship, according to the testimony of Fritz Heberling, German consulate clerk at Chicago.
It was largely Pfaus who made and maintained American contacts. Forbes' testimony gives a clear indication of the methods by which the organization operated. A fellow student at the University of Washington, Forbes related, was flunked by a German-Jewish pro- fessor, following some bitter differences of opinion between the two. The student, while still in a disgruntled mood, was approached by the son of the Hamburg-American line steamship agent at Seattle, who took him to see his father.
The agent gave the youth some Fichte- Bund material and urged him to write directly to the Hamburg headquarters for more. The student did so and subsequently joined Forbes in an investigation of the organization. Forbes testified that during the course of their inquiry they learned that much of the material from the Fichte-Bund was sent across the Canadian border into the United States.
The bulk of it went to the Los Angeles area. In conducting the investigation, Forbes received a letter from G. Fritz Kuhn, foimer German- American Bund leader, had previously testified that Fichte-Bund material was not used by his organization and that he had no personal contact with the German organization. Further testimony that the Fichte-Bund attempted to influence American college students was supplied by Hampden Wilson, an investigator of the Veterans' Administration assigned to the Special Committee on Un-American Activities. Wilson, after studying conditions in more than 50 institutions of higher learning, reported that — There were found in several institutions letters from Oscar C.
Pfaus, Hamburg, Germany, who professed to speak for the Fichte-Bund. Several of these letters were addressed to individual students, always signed "Baron. They were, in several instances, striving to show the college students to whom they were addressed the very great success of the Hitler move- ment in Germany hearings, vol. Pfaus also maintained contacts, as mentioned above, with outstand- ing "native Fascists" in the United States, notable among them Mrs. Numerous letters obtained by the committee reveal that Pfaus and Mrs.
Sloane were in close touch with each other, Mrs. Sloane at one time confiding to Pfaus her plans for establishment of a newspaper to be called The National American Patriot with which she hoped to have associated a council of 12 "leaders of patriotic movements," including Fritz Kuhn, of the German-American Bund; Silver Shirter William Dudley Pelley; and George Deatherage, head of the Knights of the White Camellia.
The activities of these American pro-Axis sympathizers are discussed fully in another section of this report. To the friends of the Fichte Association: The vicious press campaigns following the events of the establishment of t lie German protectorate over Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia compel me to write to you, trusting that- you will give my statements your kind attention. There- fore, I call on you to be judge of the recent happenings in the countries which formerly comprised Czechoslovakia.
Will you kindly allow me to put forward to you the reasons which led to the recent developments between Germany and Czechoslovakia? The Munich Agreement between Chamberlain, Mussolini, Daladier, and Reich Chancellor Hitler, as well as the so-called Protocols of Vienna, firmly established the fate of the minorities formerly under the rule of the Czechs, but which were superior in number to the Czechs themselves. But the these minorities, Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians, Ukrainians, and Poles, were forced by the infamous Treaty of Versailles to submit to the rule of the Czechs.
It is beyond doubt that this state of affairs was the reason for constant trouble and political tension in Eastern Europe. This situation would unavoidably have led to the outbreak of another world war. Especially dangerous to world peace was the system of alliances which formerly Unified France and Czechoslovakia with Soviet Russia.
This alliance was noth- ing else but an aggiessive Communistic front directed against not only Germany and Italy, but against the whole of Europe. According to the Munich Agreement the State of Czechoslovakia could have taken a natural and peaceful development if the Czechs and Slovaks had partici- pated equally in the government of the state, and if it would have taken care to better the relations with its neighbor Germany.
But encouraged by Bolshe- vistic Russia the Czechs defied all efforts made by Germany purposing an agree- ment of mutual understanding between Germany and Czechoslovakia. During- many years the Czechs had forced their rule upon the minorities which often led to protests made by these enslaved peoples. The Czech persecution of minorities did go as far as preventing Slovakian ministers from executing the duties of their offices. It even happened that they were cast into prisons.
In conse- quence of these treaty-defying outrages, rightful indignation took hold of the minorities in Czechoslovakia, and their wishes for freedom from Czech oppression became a serious problem. The Czechs answered these demands for fair play and self-determination with the bayonets of their soldiers. Open rebellion broke out all over Czechoslovakia, in the Carpathian Ukraine it developed into a bloody civil war.
Slovakia proclaimed its independence. The Czech state became a prey of Moscow-inspired mob rule. In this serious hour the Czech president, Hacha, and the Czech foreign minister, Chvalkowsky, decided to appeal to Reich Chancellor Hitler to bring order into the chaotic conditions of the Czech State. The leading statesmen of both the Czech and the Slovak states realized full well the impossibility of the further peaceful as well as successful development, and the unprotected independent exist- ence of their countries.
They realized also that the Communistic-inspired part of the Czech population and the Czech army poisoned by an extensive Jewish- Bolshevistic propaganda advocating civil war, mob rule, and general disorder, were becoming the dominating factors in the Czech state. Consequently Presi- dent Hacha and Foreign Minister Chvalkowsky decided to save the state from complete disintegration, and from further bloodshed by asking Chancellor Hitler in Berlin to consent to take over the protectorate over the provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, that is, the Czech state.
Quickly following this move, Prime Minister Dr. In sincere confidence in you, the Leader and Chancellor of the Greater German Reich, the State of Slovakia places itself under your protection.
The political puzzle of “unhyphenated Americans”
The State of Slovakia asks you to take over this protectorate. Signed Tiso. Tiso: "I acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of yesterday and herewith take over the protection of the State of Slovakia. Signed Adolf Hitler. The historical connection of the provinces of Bohemia and Moravia with Germany is interesting. From the German kings they received the hereditary titles of kings, and the titles of electors. The lineage of the kings of Bohemia became extinct in the After these provinces belonged for more than a thousand years to the German Reich, the Treaty of Versailles severed the natural bonds which connected these territories with the mother country.
Therefore, the Versailles-created State of Czechoslovakia existed only from till March Although these facts are known to every serious student of history, and although it is quite clear that the provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, as well as Slovakia were taken under German protection upon the urgent requests by the Czech and Slovak governments, the international wirepullers and war mongers are doing all they can do to distort the truth by spreading lies about these happenings.
Germany wants peace! Her enemies want war! The wirepullers of today are the same propagandists of yesteryear, who during the great war fed the world with the tales of German atrocities. Those propa- gandists who said that German soldiers in the world war had chopped off the hands of Belgian children, that they had crucified allied soldiers, and that they had even used the corpses of allied soldiers for the purpose of making ingredients for ammunition! All these lies have long since been refuted by just thinking eminent men of letters.
But it is evident that the same men behind the scenes, the same wirepullers, are trying again to provoke another slaughtering of nations so they themselves may live and prosper! I will mention only a few of the unscrupulous lies which have been distributed by the press during the past few weeks.
The lie of the "Oeuvre. The lie of the "Journal des Debates. Ihe "Figaro" another Parisian slander sheet, predicted the outbreak of another woild war! The lie oj the "Gazette de Bruxelle. Lies in Holland. Lies in England. The lie of the "Libre Btlgique. Furthermore it is also maintained that Germany had established air bases in South America for the purpose of conquest! These are only samples of the obnoxious propaganda directed against Germany by the international wire pullers. Next to this slanderous activity of the press the English Mr.
Vansittard's accusations against Germany in regards to Roumania are most significant. Vansittard charged that Germany had sent an ultimatum to Roumania which demanded a trade monopoly for the Reich! The definite refutation of this pernicious lie by lie Roumanian government itself had not the eflect that this lie disappeared. It still remained although the British Minister of the Interior Hoaie had to admit that Germany had served no ultimatum on Roumania!
The German trade agreement with Roumania became effective on March 23rd. It was concluded on a friendly basis, and was welcomed not only by the Roumanian government but also by the Roumanian people. This is proven by the fact that an English trade commission was already on its way to Roumania at the time the German-Roumanian agreement was concluded! The liberation of the Memel territory is another prove of Germany's inten- tions to adjust the injustices of the Versailles treaty in a peaceful manner. Since the Memel territory was ceded to Lithuania — in spite of the desires of its German population to remain German — all Lithuanian efforts to give Memel- land a Lithuanian character have been in vain.
The people of German Memel- land demanded the return of their Territory to Germany, and Lil huania acquiesced after Germany negotiated a peaceful solution of the impossible situation. The interests of Lithuania have been fully considered by Germany's consent to allow Lithuania a so-called Free Zone in the harbor of Memel in order to ensure Lithua- nia's trade interests. I am sure that these statements have given you a clear idea of the German point of view, and have given you some interesting facts about the incredible international press campaign. May I say in conclusion that if these international war mongers succeed to provoke another world conflagration the results for our civilization and culture would be horrible.
Only those people would profit from a world drenched in blood who never can be found in the trenches at the front. Those who comprise the class of war profiteers who only can live by the death of others. Behind these slanderous activities, and behind these evil machinations to provoke war is the international Jewry! Those race of destroyers which find their home in every country where they can gather loot. I would esteem it a great favor if you would have the kindness to give me your opinion of the present state of world affairs. Thanking you for your friendly attention, I am sincerely yours Th.
Kessemeier, Dir. The foregoing document, which has been reproduced in full, is an excellent sample of the type of propaganda which emanated from Nazi Germany and which was slavishly followed by many, if not all, of the native pro-Axis groups and individuals in the United States — those organizations and individuals which are dealt with in part III of this report. Note, for example, that the Fichte-Bund in the next to the last paragraph of this document charges "international Jewry" with full responsibility for the present war, which is a stock charge made by Nazi propagandists.
It sends out propaganda in eight foreign languages, having an American section chiefly note- worthy for its free exchange of material with the so-called native Fascists in the United States. In its report to the House of Repre- sentatives in January and again in , the committee called attention to the fact that Axis front organizations in the United States made abundant use of World Service, while the committee's hearings are studded with testimony showing that literature published by pro- Axis groups here was reprinted by World Service in Germany.
An excerpt from the testimony of Henry Allen indicates the type of material distributed by the organization: Mr. My point is, Is not World Service a propaganda sheet in favor of any anti-Jewish regime? Is not that a fair statement of it? I think that is a fair statement of it hearings, vol.
The American section is in charge of one Schirmer. A predecessor to Schirmer was Johannes Klapproth, a German-American who had lived in this country for several years, working as a chemist for the Shell Oil Co. George Deatherage, pro-Fascist and head of the Knights of the White Camellia, testified on May 24, , that Klapproth had died 2 or 3 weeks before that date. Deatherage disclosed that Klapproth was a member of the Knights of the White Camellia and that he had aided Deatherage in getting out literature and editing material. In financial difficulties, Klapproth returned to Germany where Deather- age helped him to secure a post with the American section of World Service.
Some of your articles or some of your speeches were sent out through that service? I believe you said earlier that some of your articles or speeches had been circulated from this World Service organization in Erfurt, Germany? Yes; I assume they did, because I sent them 10 copies of our publications hearings, vol. A letter from Klapproth to Ernest Goerner, dated March 11, , indicated that Pellcy's publication, Liberation, was received at World Service headquarters.
An excerpt from the letter follows: We regret that we were not able to thank you sooner for the number of publica- tions you have sent us. We have read your article in Liberation magazine of the Silver Shirts with great interest and wish to congratulate you especially on this hearings, vol. On page , volume 6 of the hearings, appears the following: Mr. Did you have material at those meetings, either Silver Shirt meetings or meetings of the Friends of New Germany, that had come directly from German sources, such as editions put out by World Service?
There were copies of World Service. Fritz Kuhn, German-American Bund leader, testified that the Weckruf, official bund organ, published material distributed by World Service. A letter obtained by the committee shows a connection between World Service and still another of the native pro-Fascists, R. The letter, on the stationery of World Service, was for- warded to Edmondson by 35 members of a world congress against international Jewry, held under the auspices of World Service at Erfurt. The text is as follows: Mr. Robert E. Dear Mr.
Edmondson: You will be interested to hear that the "World Service" conference in Erfurt has been a great success and that 22 countries have sent representations. Your case of World Jewry versus yourself which is to be tried on September 13th, and which now has a world reputation, has been much discussed by those present at this "World Service" conference, and admiration expressed for the valiant fight you are putting up on behalf of our Aryan civilization against the pernicious forces of Judah.
We are sending you this letter to show you that we are thinking of you and admire you for your tenacity and great moral courage in fighting this greatest of all fights against Jew domination of all that we hold noble and sacred. Dear Miss Staub: We thank you for your letter of May 11th and the enclosed stamps. Under separate cover you will receive another package with different interesting literature. Moreover you should try to get some enlightening American news and papers, as "Social justice" by Father Coughlin, "Defender" by Rev.
Markoff and O. Good, 15 cts. Bergmeister, 45 cts.
These books you can obtain at this office at the named price. We enjoy reading that your discussion group is progressing very nicely and hope that our literature will help you for further understanding of the Jewish danger. In the foregoing letter, special attention is directed to the fact that the Nazi agency, World Service, recommended the publications of Charles E.
Coughlin and Gerald B. Winrod as "enlightening. Viereck, born in Munich, Germany, December 31, , came to America at the age of 11 and later became an American citizen and during the first World War was a paid agent of the German Government and later became a paid propagandist and adviser for Hitler in this coun- try.
The committee obtained documents which revealed Viereck's tie-up with these official agencies of the Nazi government. April 11th, Zapp: I have been reading your Transoceanic Service with great interest. It seems to me that it is of great value to a newspaper that has no American service, but it is not of great value, except as a means of checking up, to any newpaper regularly serviced by any of the great American agencies. I have read your service very carefully, but have found very little that was not printed in the American newspapers.
This may be due to the fact that the American news agencies receive a great deal of their material from the same sources as you do in Germany. It may be, of course, that I am mistaken. It seems to me that before you can sell your service to anyone here, you would have to check up very carefully for a period of a few weeks, and point out to any possible American purchaser news items covered by you, which were not covered by the other services.
As a matter of fact, the value of your service might be increased, if you give it even more distinctly a pro-German slant; if you give the newspapers those things which their own correspondents do not send them from Germany and Italy. These are purely my personal impressions, which I hope you will not take amiss. I may be entirely wrong. Sincerely yours, George Sylvester Viereck. It is apparent from this document that Viereck acted in the capacity of an adviser to the Nazi government. In the statement the organization filed, the following item was listed: Mr.
George Sylvester Viereck is under contract for special editorial work and literary advise in connection with all publications. Beller: In accordance with your request I herewith confirm our verbal agreement: 1 I agree to prepare for "Facts in Review" digests of such material as you place at my disposal from time to time. I welcome cooperation with you, because I can think of no more important task from the point of view of fair play and the maintenance of peace between your country and mine than to present to the American public a picture unblurred by anti-German propa- ganda of the great conflict now unhappily waging in Europe.
Believe me, Sincerely yours, George Sylvester Viereck. Agreed: Heinz Beller. Viereck also served the Nazi propaganda "front" organization known as the American Fellowship Forum, which was directed by Nazi prop- agandist, Priedrich Ernst Auhagen now serving a sentence in a Fed- eral prison for violation of the act of June 8, , his conviction re- sulting from this committee's exposure , who made a statement to the committee in The following quotations are taken from his "Question and answer" statement, which show the connection of.
Vie- reck with the forum and its publication entitled "Todays Challenge. Who brought in Viereck? Kohl first brought Viereck in. I had never known him personally before. I had heard about him, but Kohl introduced him to me. We had many discussions. I found him extremely difficult to get along with. Viereck never had any official position — he simply edited articles only.
How long was he connected with the Forum? After the first two weeks Viereck went to Europe, and he had nothing whatever to do with the publishing of the second and third issues of the magazine, lie wrote two articles in all for the magazine. I cut some passages from Viereck's article, as editor, which I con- sidered conflictatory with our policy, since our policy was not to attack persons. It was a very insignificant matter, but he felt sure that I had tampered with his manuscript.
For more detailed information on Viereck see that report, as well as the testimony of Congressman Wright Pat- man which appears in volume 14 of the committee's hearings, also the court record of Vicreck's trial, which, among other things, brought out the fact that Viereck had paid into the Flanders Publishing House, of Scotch Plains, N. The Flanders Publishing Co. In the first report of the committee, filed with the House of Representatives, the following appears: It should be noted that according to testimony we heard, Dr.
He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund vol. The committee felt that Ross was of such importance that in a subcommittee headed by Representative Jerry Voorhis of California made a thorough investigation into his activities and on December 28, , published a report on the results of the inquiry. Ross was again listed as a Nazi agent by the committee in January As an indication of the importance of Colin Ross to the Nazi government it is pertinent to note that as a result of the committee's report, the German Government on August 8, , sent the following protest to the Department of State, which protest was transmitted to the committee on August 20, , by Acting Secretary Sumner Welles: The German Charge d'Affaires presents his compliments to the honorable the Acting Secretary of State and has the honor to advise him as follows: On December 28, , the Special Committee on Un-American Activities released a report concerning the alleged activities in the United States of the German writer Dr.
Colin Ross. In this report, with entire lack of evidence, a widely recognized and respected German writer is unjustifiably accused and thus personally as well as publicly gravely discredited. Upon instructions of my Government, I am presenting herewith the translation of Dr. Colin Ross' state- ment in reply to the report of the Dies committee, which clearly shows how entirely unfounded the charges lodged against him are.
Colin Ross' statement to be forwarded to the chairman of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, so that it can be made a part of that committee's records. Washington, D. C, August 8, In view of subsequent events, the committee incorporates in this volume its original report on Colin Ross, which was made public on December 28, Report on Colin Ross Thursday, December 28, In releasing the following report on the activities of Dr. Colin Ross in the United States, the Committee on Un-American Activities wishes to make the emphatic statement that neither the committee as a whole nor any of its individual members entertains the slightest doubt of the unswerving loyalty to the United States of our fellow citizens of German descent.
The question of the form of government of the German or any other nation is not one that concerns either this committee or the American people. But attempts by any foreign agency to influence American citizens in favor of a foreign form of government and against American democracy is quite a different matter and one con- cerning which the Committee on Un-American Activities has imme- diate and great concern.
Colin Ross and his activities in the United States. In order to preserve the prerogative of any and all branches of the Government of the United States, the committee makes public only the result of its own investigation of the evidence available in this case. Summarized, we find: 1. That dining the World War Ross was a German spy and secret-service agent, and that during a portion of this time he was assigned to special propaganda work in behalf of the Impe- rial German Government and against the Allies, at least prior to the entrance in the conflict of the United States.
That Ross is registered with the Department of State as a Nazi propagandist, but that he has not reported in "full" the scope of his activities and therefore is liable to prosecution under the terms of this act. That he committed a number of acts while in this country which appeared to come within the category of espionage, and that officials extremely high in the Government of the United States have issued warnings and secret orders concerning these activities.
That many of the speaking engagements in this country featuring Ross were arranged for by the various Nazi consular officials situated throughout the Nation and that he was promoted by, and spoke for, gatherings of the German-American Bund. That Fritz Kuhn, fuehrer of the German- American Bund, in recent testimony before this committee admitted his acquaint- ance with Ross. That Ross was instrumental in having 30 American boys taken to Germany, and that the greatest part of the expense of this trip was paid for by various subdivisions of the Nazi Gov- ernment and some alleged German-Americans residing in Ger- many.
That within the past 12 months Ross toured the United States with his wife, son, and uniformed chauffeur in a special Mercedes automobile, equipped with motion-picture cameras, and that he appeared to have funds far in excess of his reported earnings from Nazi agencies. That he attempted to photograph several specialized in- dustrial plants and that at least one American refused to comply with Ross' requests because they were so extremely derogatory to the best interests of the United States.
This committee recommends that Dr. Colin Ross be pre- vented from ever again setting foot on American soil. Colin Ross was born in , in Vienna, of Scottish parents. Ross lived for a number of years in Chicago, where his children went to school and his daughter, Renate, got her Ph.
This committee has had information that Ross became a Com- munist in Germany, after the World War, and made considerable headway in that movement. With the coming of the Nazi regime he took their ideology and soon became one of its most important agents. Utley, director of the Chi- cago Council of Foreign Relations, before whom Ross was to speak said: He had the opportunity to be close by when the events in Munich took place and the German troops subsequently marched into 1 he Sudeten territory. Ross has made many trips to this country, always plentifully pro- vided with cash, and has shown films of his native land here during which time he was directing pictures of events and places in this country.
There is indisputable proof that Ross doctored the pictures em- ploying the artifice of montage so that the pictures when shown in Germany did not depict facts but vile distortions and, particularly, with a view of showing America in the worst possible light.
While Ross lived in Chicago he made the acquaintance of Prof. Martin Sprengling, of the University of Chicago, and the latter's son who soon provided a circle in which Ross moved. Registration No. In that statement Ross, under oath, states that he resides in Munich, Koenigstrasse, 29, Germany, and that he was in this country in connection with work as a newspaper correspond- ent he names some 20 Nazi publications , and for the purpose of making a film for the Tobis Filmkunst, Berlin.
He further claimed that his lectures in this country did not involve any foreign principle and that in all occasions he had been paid for his lectures by an American association. This sum, as readily can be seen, does riot account for any of the number of speeches that he made before groups of the German- American Bund or for the many articles he contributed to the Nazi Weckruf and Beobachter, published in this country under the super- vision of Fritz Kuhn, "fuehrer" of the German- American Bund, who admitted under oath in recent testimony before this committee that he knew Ross.
Information in possession of this committee proves that Ross had expensive photographic equipment attached to his automobile in such manner that pictures could be taken quickly and from any angle. The committee has further information that Ross sent many of the pictures he directed to the laboratories of the Agfa Film Co. These films portrayed such scenes as Negroes living in huts in the South, women working in cotton mills and cigarette factories in North Carolina, and Indians living in small tepees.
There were also a number of prints made snowing in detail cities like Pittsburgh and Jersey City in which factory sites and bridges were indicated. Ludwig R. Krahforst, Glacier Drive, Eagle Rock, Los Angeles, was employed by Ross to make some pictures in and later refused to continue his employment because of the obvious un-American nature of the work.
This committee wishes at this time to clear Mr. Krahforst of any complicity in this matter. Dyckerhoff, an engineer of high standing, connected with the Commonwealth Edison Co. Never suspecting the true purpose of Ross' requests, Dr. Dycker- hoff suggested pictures of T. Contact was made with officials of the Inter- national Harvester Co.
Permis- sion was refused. A few days later Ross was stopped by a policeman for taking pictures motion without a permit. How the Nazi consuls hi this country cooperate with Ross is best shown by the letter of Dr. Otto Denzer, Nazi vice consul in Chicago, to Clifton Utley, of the Foreign Policy Association of that city, under date of December 16, , in which he states: Enclosed please find a few biographical data on Colin Ross.
May I assure you that if arrangements could be made for his appearance before the Council on Foreign Relations sometime during the first days of January , this would be highly appreciated. It should be noted that at his speech Ross was booed and hissed and that among those seated at the speakers' table were: Mr. Baer, Nazi consul general. Otto Denzer, Nazi vice consul.
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