Li Ao , a scholar, poet, and official, used and brought attention to the Great Learning.
After the Song and Yuan Dynasties, The Great Learning became a required textbook in schools and a required reading for imperial examinations. The Great Learning was used by Japan, Korea and later in the west. Such critics such as Lu Xiangshan and Wang Yangming later disliked the Great Learning because of the stress on scholarship rather than action. Wang Yangming rejected Zhu Xi's changes and returned the text to the original, from the Classic of Rites. The Dais divided the book into five sections. There is a popular commentary by philosopher Zhang [ who?
Li Ao incorporated a lot of Buddhist and Taoist ideas into his work.
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He may also have written the beginning of the Great Learning. Ma Yung edited the Great Learning in the Han dynasty, giving his views of the general meaning. The text sets up a number of controversies that have underlain Chinese philosophy and political thinking. For example, one major controversy has been to define exactly the investigation of things. What things are to be investigated and how has been one of the crucial issues of Chinese philosophy. One of the first steps to understanding The Great Learning is to understand how to "investigate things".
This did not consist of scientific inquiry and experimentation, but introspection, building on what is already "known" of "principle". The Great Learning as we know it today is the result of multiple revisions and commentaries by a number of Confucian and Neo-Confucian scholars.
The Great Learning (Unabridged) - Confucius - Google книги
Both were removed from the Book of Rites and designated as separate, and equally significant, works by Zhu Xi. In the winter of C. Zhu Xi was prompted to refine the Great Learning and incorporate it into the curriculum as he felt that the previously utilized Classics were lengthy and too difficult to comprehend by the common individual to be used as an educational foundation for Confucian thought.
The Daxue itself gets its name from "ta-jen chih hsueh," referring to the education of adults. Unlike many scholars before him, Zhu Xi presents the Great Learning as the way of self cultivation and governance that is to be studied by all people, not only those in, or seeking, political office. Although the Imperial Examination System is no longer used as a means of determining one's place in the social hierarchy, education and the teachings of the Great Learning remain an integral part of modern educational and political culture in China.
In fact, a number of scholars believe that all education in mainland China is based on Confucianism to some degree although many individuals, students and teachers alike, are unaware of the Confucian influence on their education. The Great Learning was written and latter published as its own book, to serve as an introduction and foundational guide for the further study of Confucian texts. The Great Learning provides a step-by-step illustration of how all aspects of society, ranging from the refinement of the self to the order within one's household or state is ultimately dependent upon the expansion of one's knowledge.
The Great Learning played a major role in Chinese politics as it comprised one of the texts incorporated into the Imperial service examination system. Students would be tested on their knowledge of the Five Classics and Four Books as a qualification for an occupation in political office. If a student possessed adequate knowledge of the texts, they would be awarded a prestigious place in government. These exams allow anyone of sufficient knowledge and skill to obtain a place in office, as exams were based solely on one's ability. One's social or financial status did not play a role in the exam system.
The text of The Great Learning provides an educational basis for those aspiring to obtain a leadership role.
Confucius' The Great Learning & The Commentary by Tsang
In addition to self-cultivation and the expansion of one's knowledge, the Great Learning goes into significant step-by-step detail with respect to the qualities of a proper ruler. The text then goes on to describe the projected quality and stability of the state if its ruler follows the guidelines described therein. One such passage states that a person should "cultivate himself, then regulate the family, then govern the state, and finally lead the world into peace" There are two common interpretations of this passage.
The Great Learning is significant because it expresses many themes of Chinese philosophy and political thinking, and has therefore been extremely influential both in classical and modern Chinese thought. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty.
Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known as Confucianism. Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself.
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Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death.
Related The Great Learning (A short Confucian text + Commentary by Tsang)
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