He argues that in the absence of flexible exchange rates high labor mobility can prevent unemployment and inflation pressures in a region in case of an asymmetric shock Mundell, , p. McKinnon McKinnon, stresses the degree of openness of a region as an important factor for forming an OCA and he defines openness as the ratio of tradable to non-tradable goods McKinnon, , p. He argues that the higher the degree of openness, the more changes in the international prices of tradables are likely to be transmitted to the domestic cost of living.
This would reduce the potential for money or exchange rate illusion by wage earners. Kenen Kenen, proposes the degree of diversification in national production and consumption as one key economic criterion for forming a successful OCA. He argues that a well-diversified economy also has a diversified export sector. A negative shock of one industry could be compensated by a positive shock of another industry which then would result in a shock cancellation effect on the total export.
Hence well-diversified economies could successfully share a common currency. This diminishes the need of nominal exchange rate adjustments Friedman, Flemming Flemming, , p. He notes that when inflation rates between countries are low and similar over time, terms of trade will also remain fairly stable.
Kenen Kenen, also argues that the higher the level of fiscal integration between two areas the greater their ability to smooth out diverse shocks through fiscal transfers from a low- to a high -unemployment. Ingram Ingram, considers that the higher the degree of financial integration the lower the need for exchange rate changes among partner countries, because changes in interest rates would provoke compensating capital flows across national frontiers. Therefore, regions must achieve a high degree of financial integration in order to build an OCA.
Having roughly described the theoretical backgrounds of the traditional OCA theory in the first part of this assignment, the second part deals with applying the found properties to the Euro Zone in order to answer the question whether or not the European EMU is an Optimum Currency Area. Figure 1 visualizes the unemployment rates in the Eurozone after the start of the Euro crisis in and in High unemployment rates can be seen in the outer parts of the Eurozone e.
Portugal, Spain, Ireland after the start of the Euro crisis. Under the assumption of high labor mobility, we should notice significant migration flows of unemployed people from the periphery into the center of the Eurozone. The result should be a harmonization of unemployment rates across the Eurozone. On the contrary, in the unemployment rates have even increased in the southern countries of the European EMU whereas the situation in Central Europe has improved.
The presumption of low labor mobility from the outer parts of the Eurozone to the center is supported by Figure 2 which compares the annual mobility rates within and between EU countries with labor flows inside the US. It shows that the annual mobility rate between EU countries was in only around 0. The reasons for the low cross-country labor mobility within Europe are various, starting from language issues, family ties, culture to the housing market Andor, Nevertheless, with a rate 10 times lower than the rate of the US, the Eurozone suffers from a low labor mobility and does thus not fulfill the corresponding OCA criterion of high factor mobility.
The degree of economic openness is one of the essential OCA criteria as price changes in international trade will have an impact on domestic prices, especially in the smaller countries, which would not be able to protect themselves against currency fluctuations.
The trade openness ratio is defined as the sum of exports plus imports of a region divided by its GDP. Figure 3 indicates that starting from the Trade-Openness-Ratio of the European Union remained steadily much higher than the ratio of the US and other countries like Japan or Australia. Figure 4 displays imports and exports of EA11  countries by sector in the year Export data hints at the degree of production diversification of a country, whereas the import data gives an insight into its consumption.
Similar but less pronounced is the situation regarding imports to EA12 countries. Most countries are not highly dependent on a specific sector.
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Figure 5 shows constant unemployment rates in the first years of this century. Starting from we see a rise of unemployment in Spain and later in Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Italy when shocks struck parts of the EU. Although these countries were hit by asymmetric shocks, Figure 6 shows increased real wages during and The numbers above might suggest that wages in the Eurozone are flexible as they respond to increased unemployment. On the other hand, the downward adjustment of wages need to exceed a specific level in order to help regions regain competitiveness .
Figure 7 visualizes the development of ULC in selected countries from The ULC of Italy has even increased. Solely Ireland managed to decrease ULC and regained competitiveness. The similarity of inflation levels helps the ECB to implement effective monetary policies that functions in all Eurozone countries, thus eliminating the effects of asymmetric shocks in different countries.
As can be seen in Figure 8, starting from the introduction of the Euro hard cash in the inflation rates of the Eurozone countries were divergent. An automatic fiscal transfer system from prosperous to distressed regions can help smoothen adverse shocks e. Such a system needs a budget that is centrally administered by the OCA Marco, , p. But ever since the start of the Euro Crisis economists start to wonder if the Eurozone can be successful in the future without a fiscal union .
Financial integration can be defined from an institutional and legal point of view de jure or on a factual basis de facto. He even states Krugman, New York Times - Opinion pages, that in absence of an effective fiscal integration labor mobility can make a currency union worse. The Theory of Optimal Currency Areas. T M Thorsten Mannherz Author. Bandi, Monika 31 July Migros Magazin 31 , p.
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